Have you heard of triple X (XXX) syndrome? What about XYY syndrome? It’s easy to confuse these two because they’re so close in name, but they’re actually two separate genetic disorders. So, what is the difference between the two? In this article, we’ll take a closer look at these two conditions, their symptoms, how they are diagnosed, and the treatments available.
What is triple X syndrome?
Triple X syndrome is a genetic disorder that only affects females. The condition occurs as the result of a random error during cell division wherein a female fetus (who would usually have two X chromosomes) receives an additional, or extra, X chromosome. It is not usually inherited. Triple X syndrome is relatively common compared to other genetic disorders, affecting approximately 1 out of every 1000 females.
- Symptoms: It’s common for females with this condition to be taller than average and they may have a higher risk of having learning disabilities, language difficulties, and/or physical coordination issues. Most women with this condition have no noticeable symptoms and are able to reproduce without issue.
- Diagnosis: This condition can be detected as early as the first trimester of pregnancy using non-invasive prenatal testing, or NIPT. In cases where NIPT was not performed, the parents or doctor may identify symptoms of developmental delay in the child and genetic testing may be ordered to determine the cause. Many women can go most or all of their lives without knowing they have this condition.
- Treatment: While there is no cure for triple X syndrome, if a patient is suffering from development problems as a result of this disorder, there are different kinds of counseling and therapy that can help them live productive lives. It can make a huge difference to begin early intervention services as soon as possible. If you find out that your child has special needs, it’s important to speak with a genetic counselor during pregnancy so that you can begin planning for care and special education programs as early as possible.
What is XYY syndrome?
XYY syndrome is a genetic disorder that only affects males. This condition has many similarities with triple X syndrome in females. It occurs as a random error during cell division when a male fetus (who would usually have 1 X chromosome and 1 Y chromosome) inherits an additional Y chromosome. And, like triple X syndrome, XYY is not usually inherited. It also has a similar level of occurrence– affecting approximately 1 out of every 1000 males.
- Symptoms: Just like females with triple X syndrome, males with XYY syndrome tend to be taller than average with some experiencing language difficulties and other learning disabilities. Unlike females with triple X syndrome, patients diagnosed with XYY have also been observed to develop severe acne during adolescence.
- Diagnosis: The diagnosis of XYY is very similar to that of females with triple X syndrome. Many males with XYY are able to reproduce normally and often live their entire lives without knowing they have this condition. Diagnosis may occur if a doctor orders genetic testing to better understand the cause of a patient’s developmental problems. It is also detectable as early as the first trimester via NIPT.
- Treatment: As with triple X syndrome, there is no cure for XYY syndrome, and only some of those affected will see developmental difficulties. These patients often see the greatest improvement from counseling and therapy to help with any symptoms experienced. These kinds of early interventions are crucial for those born with XYY syndrome.
If you have additional questions about triple X or XYY syndrome or if you’re interested in non-invasive prenatal testing, speak with your doctor or a genetic counselor. They will be able to better help you understand your risk for these conditions, answer any questions, and even recommend testing options in your area (if necessary).